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Jun 6, 2010

ANGKLUNG INDONESIA CULTURAL HERITAGE


Angklung is an instrument made from joints of a piece of bamboo. The use of angklung is swayed and shaken by hand. This instrument has been known since a long time ago in some places in Indonesia, especially in West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Bali. The word ‘Angklung’ was originated from Sundanese “angkleung-angkleungan”, that means the movement of angklung player and the sound “klung” that comes from the instrument. Angklung is found by Mr Daeng Sutigna 1938. in beginning, angklung used initially limited to the interests of local or traditional arts. But because of the sound generated is very tunable and also has local and international content such as sound tones Duremi fa so la si du and Daminatilada, the angklung too fast growing, not only locally but also performed for performed for regional, national and international. Angklung performances staged in front of the State's leaders at the Asia Africa Conference in Bandung, Gedung Merdeka in 1955.
Number of players angklung can reach 50 people, even up to 100 people and can be combined with any other musical instruments such as piano, organ, guitar, drums, and others. Aside from being a tool of art, angklung can also be used as souvenirs or fruits after hand decorated with various other accessories.
After the death of Angklung Daeng Sutigna passed by the creations of art and Erwin Anwar Ujo Mang. Even Mang Ujo has made the manufacture and development center angklung art creations called 'Saung Angklung Mang Ujo "Padasuka Cicaheum located in Bandung. One program she is doing, especially to preserve arts Angklung Angklung is to introduce students to the school, starting kindergarten, up to senior secondary level and has even become one of the curriculum at the local subjects.

Traditional Angklung
1. Angklung Baduy
It has not known from where and when Baduy Angklung came. The spread of this angklung was not too wide. It may be because the performance was monotonous and boring.
In Baduy Jero society, Baduy Angklung is used as a performance which support traditional ceremony to respect Sang Hyang Asri or Dewi Sri as an agricultural and fertility goddess. That ceremony is well known as ngaseuk pare, a ceremony held when planting rice seedling in field, and ngampihkeun pare, a ceremony when take the rice to rice-shed.
Baduy Angklung consists of four ‘ancak’ that called King-king, indo, panempas, and gong-gong. Dog-dog and bedug have function to escort song rhythm and song tempo. The players use white or black ‘kampret’, ‘lomar’, and ‘iket’. The total players are fifteen players; consist of nine angklung players, three bedug players, and the other as dancers.
In the performance, angklung and dog-dog escort them who sing and dance (ngalagu jeung ngalage). The song is done by reply each other, while dancing and moving around. The songs are Ayun-ayunan, Bibi Lenjang, Cik Arileu, Hiah-hiah Panjang, Jari Gandang, Keupat Rendang, Lili-liyang, Nganteh, Ngaseh, Oray-orayan, Pong-pok, Salaela, Yandi Bibi, Ketek-ketek, and Pileuleuyan.

2. Angklung Buncis
Buncis Angklung was first made by Mr. Bonce in 1975 in Kampung Cipurut, Desa Baros, Arjasari, Bandung. It was told that Mr. Bonce worked as a fisherman in a river. One day, he found the river where he put basket trap for fish overflowed because of flood. That flood washed away some bamboos then he took home those bamboos and put in fireplace. After dried, he hit those bamboos and they produced good and clear sound. So, he made angklung. The angklung was named Buncis Angklung. Mr. Bonce made seven sets of Buncis Angklung and sold them to Aki Dartiam. After that, Aki Dartiam combined the angklung with dog-dog and trumpet.
Buncis angklung is played as an art which escort public ceremony or other events that involve a lot of people, such as nginebkeun pare or take the rice from rice field to house, heleran ceremony or guiding children from house to bengkong’s house to do circumcision, wedding ceremony, and other national ceremony.

3. Angklung Gubrak
Long time ago, Kampung Cipining, Bogor was threatened by starvation because the rice in the rice field couldn’t grow well. The people believed that the calamity happened because of the anger of Dewi Sri who was mourn and didn’t get any entertainment or angry to the people. The people belived that Dewi Sri stayed in the sky and they tried many things to invite Dewi Sri to come to the earth and gave fertility to the rice fields. Many efforts done, such as gave sacrifice, arranged art performance like suling performance, karinding performance, etc. But those efforts didn’t give any results. Dewi Sri didn’t come down to the earth and the plants didn’t grow well.
Finally, there was a man named Mukhtar. He invited his friends to go to Cirangsad Mountain to cut surat bamboo. Afterwards, those bamboos were dried while doing ‘mati geni’ as long as 40 days. Mukhtar processed those bamboos to become angklung. He completed the angklung with dog-dog lojor. He taught the people how to play angklung and organized a ceremony for Dewi Sri and used angklung as a medium. After that ceremony, the plants grew well and fertile. It was believed that Dewi Sri accepted the ceremony and wanted to come down to the earth and gave fertility. Angklung could attracted Dewi sri to come from the sky (in Sundanese, it is called Ngagubrag). Later, this angklung is called Gubrag Angklung.
Gubrag Angklung is played in seren taun ceremony, which is a ceremony held in last harvest. Besides that, Gubrag Angklung also played in family party, anniversary, national days and many other events that involve a lot of people.

4. Angklung Bungko
Bungko Angklung can be found in Desa Bungko, the boundary of Cirebon and Indramayu. The first Bungko Angklung was believed to be 600 years old. The first Bungko Angklung is still alive, kept well, although it doesn’t have tone anymore. The first Bungko Angklung always enclosed in every performance of Bungko Angklung as an official symbol of that performance.
Bungko Angklung was developed by a figure of society, named Syeh Bentong or Ki Gede Bungko, after used as a performance to escort the Bungko’s village people to fight the pirates. Ki Gede Bungko used Bungko Angklung to spread Islam.
Besides those kinds of angklung, there are many other kinds of angklung that spread in almost every place in West Java. For example, Jinjing Angklung which usually plays as entertainment, angklung without vocal in Kanekes, angklung with susualan in Panamping, Sered Angklung in Tasikmalaya which is the angklung competition for children, etc.
One effort in continuing and developing traditional angklung has been done by Udjo Ngalagena through traditional angklung practice program in his Saung Angklung where the participants should learn and understand about traditional angklung before they learn about modern angklung or other Sundanese arts that have been modified.
Angklung Development In Indonesia

The Magic of Angklung
Other things which lead to the development of meaningful values in music education are:
* Increasing awareness on music
* Emerging music sense
* Developing rhythm sense, melody and harmony, etc.
* The other important things of Angklung are:
* Intellectual/intelligent development
* Creativity-discipline
* Emotional and expressions channel in playing music happily.
* Practice coordinating body movement when following music rhythm in terms of psychomotor nerve development.
* Some health centres in other country have proved through their scientific findings that Angklung has been a health therapy medium.
Furthermore, it is expected that traditional arts be able to stimulate idealism and interests of young generation on the existence of Sundanese traditional arts/music. In addition to this, it is further hoped that young generations also get interested in preserving natural environment.

Source :
http://www.angklung-udjo.co.id/angklung/history-of-angklung/
http://www.angklung-udjo.co.id/angklung/definition/

Video :
Angklung Orchester Hamburg in Concert
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQB27SRWMUY
Angklung at Bandung, Indonesia
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wM04N21aDfY

Author : Prasetyo

1 comment:

  1. This Is Our Traditional music instrument.. It could make a great music if we play it with a lot of people together..
    If I had one, I would try make my own music.. ^.^

    ReplyDelete