Garuda Bird

Garuda Bird
The Sign of Indonesia

May 30, 2010

Indonesian Aerospace : “Indonesian People Masterpiece”

Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) (Indonesian: PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (DI)) is an Indonesian aerospace company in Asia with core competence in aircraft design, development and manufacturing of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. The company was formerly known as Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN) or Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio (IPTN).

Established in 1976 as a state owned company, it has developed its capability as aircraft manufacturer and diversified its product not only in the field of aircraft but also other area such as Telecommunication, Automotive, Maritime, Information Technology, Oil & Gas, Control & Automation, Military, Simulation Technology, Industrial Turbine, and Engineering Services.



Though aircraft production in Indonesia existed before her independence, the National Aviation Industry was pioneered in 1946 at Yogyakarta by the formation of Planning and Construction Bureau (Indonesian: Biro Rencana dan Konstruksi) within The Indonesian Air Force. Wiweko Soepono, Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, and J. Sumarsono, opened a simple workshop at Magetan, near Madiun. With basic materials, gliders were designed and built -- Resulting Zogling, NWG-1 (Nurtanio Wiweko Glider) among others.

In 1948, a motorized aircraft, WEL-X was built by Wiweko Soepono utilizing a Harley Davidson engine. The small craft was registered as RI-X. This era marked the rise of several aeromodeling club.

The war for independence, however, halted all progress until 1953. In that year, The Experimental Section (Seksi Percobaan) was organized. Consisting of only 15 personnel, led by Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, The team built and tested three prototypes of a single-seated all metal aircraft at Andir Airport (Later renamed to Husein Sastranegara International Airport) in Bandung.

Later in April 24th 1957, The Experimental Section graduated into The Inspection, Trial, and Production Sub-Depot (Indonesian: Sub Depot Penyelidikan, Percobaan dan Pembuatan) based on Decision Letter of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff number 68.

Finally in 1958, a light training aircraft prototype named Belalang 89, or Grasshopper 89, was successfully flown. The design was later produced as Belalang 90. 5 Belalang 90 were built and used for military training. On the side note, within the same year, a sport plane, "Kunang 25", was also successfully built and flown.


On August 1, 1960, by the order of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff (order #488), The Aviation Industry Preparation Body was to be formed to envision the birth of the National Aircraft Industry. Within months, the new body, known as LAPIP (Lembaga Persiapan Industri Penerbangan) since December 16, 1961, was actively negotiating for technological transfers and contracts.

LAPIP was able to secured a joint licensing and production contract with Poland. Within the same year, Indonesia was producing PZL-104 Wilga or locally named Gelatik. 44 units were produced for agriculture, transport, and aero club purposes.

In 1965, Aircraft Industry Project Implementation Command (Komando Pelaksana Proyek Industri Pesawat Terbang (KOPELAPIP)) and Independent Aircraft Industry National Company (PN. Industri Pesawat Terbang Berdikari) were formed to expand and formulate specific uses of the young aviation industry.

Within the same timeline, Aviation Study(ies) were promoted in the country top universities. One of the first and well respected school was founded within The Machine Department of The Engineering Faculty of Institut Teknologi Bandung ITB by Oetarjo Diran and Liem Keng Kie.

In September 1974, Pertamina's Advanced Technology Division signed a license contract with MBB and CASA for producing Bölkow Bo 105 and CASA C.212 Aviocar.

Nurtanio Aircraft Industry

On April 26th, 1976 , mandated by Government's Act No. 15, in Jakarta, PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio was officially established with Dr. BJ. Habibie as the President Director. The infrastructure was completed and inaugurated on August 23rd 1976 by President Suharto. The new body was a merge between Nurtanio Aviation Industry Body (Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio/LIPNUR) and Pertamina's Advanced Technology Division.

The name Nurtanio is a tribute to Nurtanio Pringgoadisuryo, one of the first aviation pioneers in Indonesia, who designed Sikumbang, an indigenous all metal aircraft (maiden flight: August 1st, 1954).

Initially, IPTN manufactured The NBO 105, under license by MBB -- Followed by NC 212, under license by CASA.

In March 1966, Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo died in flight testing accident. The Aviation Industry Preparation Body was then renamed to Nurtanio Aviation Industry Body (Indonesian: Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (Abbreviated as LIPNUR)).

Nusantara Aircraft Industry

On October 11, 1985, the name PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio was changed to the PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara or IPTN. Nusantara signifies the Indonesian 17000 island archipelago.

The exclusion of "Nurtanio" from IPTN was due to some highly questionable accusations. One of the allegations was a personal use of company's letterhead by Nurtanio's family to appropriate some IPTN stocks. None was proven true.

Dirgantara Indonesia / Indonesian Aerospace

Following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a major restructuring program was implemented. At its peak, in 2004, the Indonesian Aerospace reduced its payroll from 9670 to a healthier 3720. Furthermore, the 18 business divisions were reorganized into the following:

• Aircraft
• Aircraft Services
• Aerostructure
• Defence
• Engineering Services

The restructuring focused on new business goals, downsizing and adaptive man-powering according to available workloads, and a pinpoint market targeting along with a concentrated business mission. Furthermore, Indonesian Aerospace opens welcome new markets to its redundant engineering experties in design to test processing, aircraft and non-aircraft component manufacturing, and after sales support and services.

The IPTN was re-introduced as PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (abbreviated DI) or Indonesian Aerospace (abbreviated IAe). IAe was officially inaugurated by the President of Indonesia, Abdurrahman Wahid, in Bandung on August 24, 2000.



The IAe N-2130 is a 80-130 passenger commuter airliner of original design by IPTN (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia, PT DI, Indonesian Aerospace) , Indonesia. The code N means Nusantara ("Archipelago"), indicating that the design, production, and the calculations were done in Indonesia by IPTN, who was the founder and pioneer of the Indonesian aviation industry.

On 10 November 1995, coinciding with the first flight of the IAe N-250, President Suharto announced the N-2130 project. He invited people to make the N-2130 a national project. The N-2130 was estimated to cost two billion dollars U.S.. He said, that this money would be made by mutual assistance through the sale of two million pieces of stock with a fractional price of 1000 U.S. dollars. For the established company PT Two Thirty One (PT DSTP) to carry out this major project.

When the Asian financial crisis of 1997 hit Indonesia, PT DSTP was badly affected. A year later due to the political instability and distortion of funding, the majority shareholders asked PT DSTP to liquidate itself through the EGM (General Meeting of Shareholders Extraordinary) on December 15, 1998.

For the preliminary design plane, the energy, thoughts, and money expended by IPTN was not small. Funds that have been issued more than 70 million U.S. dollars according to EGM's decision, funding for this next-considered "sunk cost".

The entire wealth of the next company which audited results submitted to BAPEPAM on 22 April 1999 and announced through the mass media. Payment of liquidation to its shareholders themselves then conducted gradually starting August 9 to October 15, 1999.


The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-turbo-prop aircraft developed jointly between CASA in Spain and IPTN in Indonesia as a regional airliner and military transport. Amongst its military roles are maritime patrol, surveillance and troop transport. The largest user is Turkey which has a total of 61 aircraft.

The project was a joint venture between CASA and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, which formed Airtech company to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.

Design began in January 1980 with first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988.

In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Columbian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.

In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft and in January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Dirgantara for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.

In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.

One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Dirgantara to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.

IAe N-250

The IAe N-250 is a regional aircraft commuter turboprop, an original design by IPTN (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia, PT DI,Indonesian Aerospace), Indonesia. Using the code N for Nusantara which means "Archipelago" indicates that the design, production, and the calculations were done in Indonesia by IPTN, who was the founder and pioneer in the Indonesian aviation industry. This contrasts with previous aircraft such as the CN-235 where the code CN stood for "CASA-Nusantara" or "CASA-IPTN", which means the aircraft was done in a joint venture between companies CASA in Spain and IPTN. The aircraft was named named Gatotkaca after a character from Mahābhārata.

This aircraft was IPTN's effort to win the market in 50-70 class passengers with advantages in its class (when it was launched in 1995). It was the star exhibits at the 1996 Indonesian Air Show in Cengkareng. But this plane was eventually dropped after the Asian financial crisis of 1997. The N-250 program was rebuilt by BJ Habibie after getting approval from the President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and the changes in Indonesia that are considered democratic. However, to reduce production costs and improve price competitiveness in international markets, changes were made which have reduced performance such as reduction in engine capacity, and the planned removal of the fly-by-wire system.

B.J. Habibie advocated production of the plane (although now he is not a director of IPTN) as the rival Fokker F-50 has not been produced since 1985, because of Fokker Aviation's bankruptcy in 1996.

CASA C-212 Aviocar

The EADS CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under licence in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace, formerly called IPTN but now known as IAe. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.

A total of 478 C-212s of all variants had been delivered through the end of 2008 by EADS-CASA. EADS-CASA predicts that an additional 85 aircraft will be delivered in the 2007-2016 time period. EADS-CASA currently builds only the C-212-400, which received Spanish certification in 1998. The C-212-200 is currently built in Indonesia, and IAe is also preparing to begin assembly of -400 models, probably in 2008.

Until 2006 this was still carrying some of the aircraft was still operating around the world including Merpati Nusantara Airlines to pioneer the path in the East Indonesia.


N-219 is a new generation aircraft, designed by Indonesian Aerospace with a true multi, multi-mission and purpose in remote areas. N-219 aircraft system technology combines the most modern and sophisticated with a tried and proven to all metal aircraft construction. N-219 has the largest cabin volume in its class and flexible door system efficiency that will be used in multi-mission cargo and passenger transportation. N-219 will conduct test flights in wind tunnel testing laboratory in March 2010. N219 new aircraft will be delivered to its first customers to be flown approximately three years or four more years. N-219 is a development of NC-212.





Source :
Author : Apit Prasetyo

1 comment:

  1. shera hisitasri ahmadJune 3, 2010 at 11:29 AM

    Although now, PT DI is reduce the number of employees, but the PT DI remained victorious, by making an amazing discovery that can't be told by any one, this information I can from one of the permanent employees of PT DI.